Advanced Search: Build Your Own Search

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This article will help you use the Build Your Own Segment Search Box on the Advanced Options section of LexisNexis Academic. The BYOSS area will help you construct a segment search in order to narrow your search in a very specific way. Segment searches bring back the most precise results. Note that if you are an experienced researcher and know many of these segments off hand, you can just type the entire segment into the main search box and forego the Advanced Options section.

The Build Your Own Segment Search Box


What is a Segment?

A document segment or section is an element within the document such as "Byline", "Date", etc. These sections identify certain parts of the document. Segment searches are useful when you need to narrow your search to something very specific, like an author's name or a word in the headline. This kind of searching is often called "fielded" or "faceted" searching. Instead of searching all of the text inside a document, you may find it very useful to only search within a segment of the document for better results.

For example, if you would like to find articles from a specific author, like David Pogue, use the BYOSS box to search within the BYLINE() segment instead of the entire document. That way, you will only see articles written by David Pogue and not articles that mention the name David Pogue somewhere in the document. Also, searching for a specific phrase in the HEADLINE segment will only bring back articles with that phrase in the headline, not articles that include that phrase in any part of the document.

Constructing a Segment Search

The Build Your Own Segment Search area consists of three elements:

  • The Segments Drop-Down Box
  • The Connector Buttons
  • The Building Box

Segments Drop-Down Box

First, it is very important that you select a source before you start working with the Build Your Own Segment Search box. The drop-down box with all of the segments will refresh based on the sources that have been selected. In the case that more than one source is selected, the drop-down box will only show the segments that the various sources have in common.

For example, on the Main Page's BYOSS box, there are four different sources selected. Furthermore, these four sources are all very different types of content. So, it makes sense that the default BYOSS box contains a very small amount of segments in common:


However, if you just select one of the four, like Law Reviews, you will see the drop-down box change dramatically:


Connector Buttons

Besides the drop-down box of segments, the connector buttons allow you to use popular Boolean Searching connectors to construct a better search.

  • AND: returns documents that contain one search term and another search term
  • OR: returns documents that contain either one search term or another
  • AND NOT: returns documents that contain one search term, but not the other
  • w/5: returns documents that contain one search term within 5 words of another search term
  • w/p: returns documents that contain one search term within the same paragraph as another search term.

Building Box

The Building Box will display your search, as you use the Segments Drop-down and Connector Buttons. Think of the Building Box as a pre-search environment where you can construct your search. When you are finished with the construction, click apply. Once a user clicks apply, the contents of the Building Box will move directly into the Main Search Box:

Segment1.jpg Segment2.jpg

Common News Document Sections

Body: The text of the article.
Byline: In newspaper articles, this section contains the name of the person identified as the author. When searching journals or other publications, you would use the "author" section.
City: Usually, the city in which the piece of news took place.
Company: Particularly useful when looking for SEC filings, this is simply the company name.
Country: Usually, the country in which the piece of news took place.
Date: The publication date. You can use most date formats and also use arithmetical operators such as DATE(>1/1/2008)
Geographic: The geopgraphic region of the story.
Headline: In newspaper articles, this section contains all headings and subheadings of the article. When searching journals or other publications, you would use the "title" section.
Hlead: In newspaper articles, this section contains the headline, highlight, and lead sections. When searching journals or other publications, you would use the "title" section.
Industry: This document section will search industry indexing terms.
Language: This indicates the language in which the document appears in the database.
Lead: In newspaper articles, this section contains the first few sentences or paragraphs of a story's text.
Length: A numerical value and arithmetically searchable. This section will show the number of words in an article. For example, if you want to make sure that all of your results are full-length articles, try LENGTH(>500).
Load-date: The date the document was loaded into the database.
Organization: This document section searches the organization index terms.
Person: This document section searches the names of persons indexed in the document.
Product: This document section searches the name of products indexed in the document.
Publication: Contains the copyright and publication name.
Section: This section contains the section and subsection of a document as well as the volume, issue, and page number.

Common Legal Document Sections


ARGUED-DATE: The date the case was ARGUED before the court and/or the date the briefs were SUBMITTED to the court.

CITE: The citation of the case location in a reporter or on the LEXIS Service.

CONCURBY: The last name(s) of the judge(s) writing the Concur, Concur in part or Concur in part and Dissent in part opinion.

COUNSEL: The name of any person or entity representing a party or interest in the case.

COURT: The name of the court in which the case was heard.

COURT-CITE-OFF: Court-issued public domain citations.

DATE: Provides capability to search the DECIDED, FILED and RELEASED dates at the same time. ARGUED-DATE is not searchable with the DATE designation.

DECISION: Contains a one or two line description of the holdings and law of a case.

DECIDED-DATE: The date the case was DECIDED or oral decision or bench decision was rendered.

DISPOSITION: The final decision of the court.

DISSENTBY: The last name(s) of the judge(s) writing the Dissent, Dissent in part or Concurring in part and Dissenting in part opinion.

ELEC-CITE-PARA: Court-issued electronic citations.

FILED-DATE: The date on which the case was filed, docketed, entered, lodged or issued.

FULL-NAME: The complete name and designation of all the parties involved in the case.

HEADNOTES: Legal issues that are pertinent to the case, as provided by the court.

HISTORY: Contains the prior and subsequent history of the case.

JUDGES: Information about the judges of the court hearing the case.

LED-HEADNOTES: Legal issues that are pertinent to the case as provided by Lawyers' Edition.

NAME: Provides the ability to search the FULL-NAME and the SHORT-NAME at the same time.

NOTICE: Provides the capability to search on any disclaimers regarding the finality of the opinion and any disclaimers regarding the publication status.

NUMBER: Contains the docket number(s) assigned to the case by the court.

OPINIONBY: The last name(s) of the judge(s) writing the majority opinion.


RELEASED-DATE: The date on which the case was made available to the public.

SHORT-NAME: An abbreviation of the FULL-NAME.

SUBSEQ-HISTORY: Information about subsequent actions in the case.

SUMMARY: Contains an in-depth summarization of the holdings and facts of a case.

SYLLABUS: A summary of the facts, history of the case and points of law of the case, as provided by the court.



CASENOTES: contains the notes of decisions.

CITE: contains the citation for a document.

HEADING: contains the number and name of the topic under which a document has been organized.

HISTORY: contains the history of a document.

NOTES: contains all notes pertaining to a document.

SECTION: contains the number and caption of a document.

STATUS: contains information regarding the currentness of the code section

TEXT: contains the text of a document.

UNANNO: searches, displays and prints a document without annotations

Law Reviews

AUTHOR: The AUTHOR segment contains the author's name and any biographical information regarding the author.

CITE: The CITE segment contains the reference to the document's location in the published source.

DATE: The DATE segment contains the date of the publication. This segment is arithmetically searchable.

LENGTH: The LENGTH segment contains the approximate number of keywords in the document. This segment is arithmetically searchable.

NAME: The NAME segment contains the name of the person(s) who wrote the article.

PUBLICATION: The PUBLICATION segment contains the copyright and publisher information.

TEXT: The TEXT segment contains the full text of the document. Footnotes are also included within this segment.

TITLE: The TITLE segment contains the title of the document.

Common Business Sections

There are hundreds of business document sections to search under, but the sections below are the most common. To find specific search sections for an individual publication, view the source information.

CITY: Contains the name of the city in which the company is located.

COMPANY: Contains the name of the company.

COMPANY-ID: Contains the CIK Number of the executive's main employer.

COMPANY-NUMBER: The COMPANY-NUMBER segment is a group segment that contains the following separately searchable segments: CUSIP, DISCLO, AND FORBES.

CROSS-REFERENCE: Contains former names of the company.

CUSIP: Contains the 9-digit number assigned by the Committee on Uniform Security Identification Procedures (CUSIP).

DIRECTORS: Lists the names of the company's directors.

EMPLOYEES: The employees segment contains the total number of employees.

EXCHANGE: The exchange segment contains the exchange(s) on which the company's stock is traded.

EXECUTIVES: The executives segment is a group of officers and directors.

FILINGS: The filings segment contains a list of filings made by the company with the SEC or other government agency. Filings display in reverse chronological order.


FOUNDED: Contains the year the company was founded. This segment is date searchable.

FYE: The FYE segment contains the closing date of the fiscal year used by the company. For example, fye(12/31)

LEGAL-STATUS: Indicates whether the company is public or private.

MARKET-CAPITAL: This segment contains the dollar amount of the company's market capital. If no amount is available, 'N/A' will appear. This segment is arithmetically searchable. For example, MARKET-CAPITAL > 219,934,333,000

NET-INCOME: Lists the net income (or earnings) for the company in dollars, taken from the income statement. For example, net-income>60,000,000

NET-WORTH: Lists the company's net worth in dollars. For example, net-worth>500,000,000

PRI-SIC: The PRI-SIC segment contains the primary SIC code. This segment is sortable. For example, pri-sic(4812)

SIC: The SIC segment contains the following separately searchable segments: PRI-SIC and SIC.

SUBSIDIARIES: Contains a list of the major subsidiaries (owned 50% or greater by the parent). May also include parenthetical notations or former names. For example, subsidiaries(div of pepsico)

TICKER: Contains the ticker symbol used in the trading of the company's stock. Can be up to six characters in length. ticker(twa)

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