Citing References

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For legal references, see our page on Legal Citation Formats.

Contents

MLA, APA, and Chicago/Turabian Style

Professional organizations like the Modern Language Association (MLA), the University of Chicago Press, and the American Psychological Association (APA), establish the documentation standards for most scholarly publishing in the U.S. Sample MLA, APA, and Chicago citations are shown below for document types found in LexisNexis® databases. The example citations are shown as if all articles were found in the LexisNexis Academic Database. In most cases, by removing the web URL part of the citation, the example turns into a citation for a print version. However, in cases such as a Company Dossier report, there is no print equivalent and you must cite the database itself as your source.

The rules for citing online documents are as changeable as the online publishing environment itself. Find out which format is preferred by your instructor, then select the relevant items from the bibliographic data section found at the top of each html file. Typically this section will provide more information than you need in your citation.

All Citation Examples are from the Latest Versions of the Style Guides
APA 6th Edition
MLA 7th Edition
Turabian 6th Edition/Chicago 15th Edition

Basic Bibliography Formatting Rules

URLs to the database or website are not completely necessary. Usually, the more information you provide, the better. However, when using URLs - especially for LexisNexis Academic! - it is very important to provide the URL to the database's home page. DO NOT copy and paste the URL that shows up in the browser bar when you are viewing the article.

Remember, the URL for the home page of LexisNexis Academic is: http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic

MLA

  • Place the list of works cited at the end of the paper.
  • Center the title, "Works Cited", one inch from the top of the page.
  • Double space between the title and the first entry.
  • Double space both within and between entries.
  • Begin each entry on the left margin.
  • Indent subsequent lines one-half inch (approximately five spaces)
  • Alphabetize by the author's (or editor's) last name.
  • Entries without an author are alphabetized by title.


APA

  • The 6th edition of APA recommends that students replace URLs to internet references with DOIs. However, in many cases - including the case of the LexisNexis Academic database - the DOI is not available. If no DOI has been assigned, it is acceptible to provide the database name. It is not necessary to include the URL, unless you are citing an e-journal.
  • Place the reference list at the end of the paper.
  • Center the title, "References" one inch from the top of the page.
  • Double space between the title and the first entry.
  • Double space both within and between entries.
  • Begin each entry on the left margin.
  • Indent subsequent lines one-half inch (approximately five spaces)
  • Alphabetize by the author's (or editor's) last name.
  • Entries without an author are alphabetized by title.

News

Journals, Magazines, and Newspapers

MLA
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Periodical Title Volume number. Issue number. Date of publication: Page number range. Database Name. Medium of Publication. Date of Access. <URL>
Examples:

Wildstrom, Stephen H. "A Big Boost for Net Privacy." Business Week 5 Apr. 1999: 23. LexisNexis® Academic. Web. 5 Aug. 2009. <http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic>
Liswood, Laura A. "Gender politics and the Oval Office; Why don't women run for president?" Baltimore Sun 31 Mar. 1999: 23A. LexisNexis® Academic. Web. 5 Aug. 2009. <http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic>

APA
Author’s Last Name, First Initial. (Date of publication). Article title. Magazine/Journal/Newspaper Title, Volume number(Issue number), Page numbers. Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database

Wildstrom, S.H. (1999, April 5). A big boost for net privacy. Business Week, p. 23. Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database
Liswood, Laura A. (1999, March 31) Gender politics and the Oval Office; Why don't women run for president? Baltimore Sun, pp. 23A. Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database

Turabian/Chicago
Author. "Article Title." Journal/Newspaper Title volume (date): section, page; available from Database name, <Site/Path/File> [Access date] .

Rosenthal, Phil. "Last Spin for Michael J. Fox." Chicago Sun-Times, Late Sports Final Edition (23 May 2000): Section 2 [newspaper on-line]; 31. available from LexisNexis Academic <http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic> [29 June 2009].

Business Sources

Company Dossier

MLA
Author(s)/Editor(s), if given. "Title of the Article." Provider of the Report (Date of publication): inclusive page numbers. Name of database. Medium of publication consulted. Date accessed.

LexisNexis, "Harley Davidson, Inc. Company Dossier." LexisNexis (2010): 1. Company Dossier. Web. 21 Jan. 2010.

APA
Author/Editor. Title of Profile . (Date of publication). Retrieved on date from URL

LexisNexis. Harley Davidson, Inc. (2010). Retrieved 2010, January 10 from LexisNexis Academic database

Turabian
It is very rare that you would ever use Turabian style to cite company information. However, if you do need to, go with the same citation form as citing a webpage.
Author(s). Name of Page [online]. Date Accessed. <url> [cited year day month].

LexisNexis. Harley Davidson Inc. Company Dossier [online]. 2010 21 January. <http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic>. [cited 2010 22 Feb].

Hoover's In-Depth Company Records

MLA
Author(s)/Editor(s), if given. "Title of the Article." Provider of the Report (Date of publication): inclusive page numbers. Name of database. Medium of publication consulted. Date accessed.

Hoover's Inc. "Harley Davidson, Incorporated: In-Depth Record" LexisNexis (16 Feb. 2010): 1. Company Dossier. Web. 21 Feb. 2010.

APA
Author/Editor. (Year, Month Day of Publiction). Title. Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database

Hoover's Inc. (2010, February 16). Harley Davidson, Incorporated: In-depth record. Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database

Turabian
It is very rare that you would ever use Turabian style to cite company information. However, if you do need to, go with the same citation form as citing a webpage.
Author(s). Name of Page [online]. Date Accessed. <url> [cited year day month].

Hoover's, Inc. Harley Davidson Inc. In-Depth Report [online]. 2010 16 February. <http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic>. [cited 2010 22 Feb].

Legal Sources

For Legal Materials, Style guides like MLA and APA usually defer to "The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation" for a standard legal citation. See our page on Legal Citation Formats for help with legal citations.

Related Resources

Many colleges and universities have created excellent guides to citation. Free citation makers are also available online. Here are links to a few we have found especially helpful.

Free Citation Generators

General

Legal